Earth Systems is staffed by environmental professionals that are active contributors to their selected professional communities. The following is a selection of informative publications authored or co-authored by our staff.
- Classification and management of waste rock from iron ore deposits containing secondary acid salts (2022)
Paper presented at ICARD 2022 discusses a new approach to the classification and management of weathered and partially weathered waste rock containing secondary acid sulfate minerals.
- Sulfide oxidation and carbonate neutralisation in mine wastes generates globally significant carbon dioxide emissions (2022)
Paper presented at ICARD 2022 discusses the potential of mine wastes to be a significant contributor to global CO2 emissions.
- Using hyperspectral scan & QXRD mineralogy for AMD hazard assessments at BHP iron ore operations (2022)
Paper presented at ICARD 2022 describes the use of hyperspectral scan data for AMD hazard assessment at BHP’s iron ore operations.
Paper describes the two stage inert atmosphere technology for preventing pollution from underground sulfidic mines.
Paper outlines an example where major and trace element bulk-rock geochemistry has been used to calculate mineralogy to assist with AMD/ARD risk management.
Paper describes the results from two sites where inert atmosphere installations have improved drainage water quality from underground mines.
Paper outlines a new waste rock pile construction method aimed at lowering AMD/ARD generation from sulfidic waste rock.
Paper outlines how recent advances in kinetic testwork procedures can assist in quantifying likely AMD/ARD performance management strategies.
Paper outlines new software tools that can assist with the assessment of AMD/ARD test work, including Net Acid Producing Potential (NAPP) estimators, acidity and charge balance calculators.
Conference proceedings (English & Chinese).
Presented at the 1st International Acid and Metalliferous Drainage Workshop in China, this paper briefly discusses the global social, environmental and economic impacts AMD/ARD.
Presented at the 1st International Acid and Metalliferous Drainage Workshop in China, this paper briefly describes the risks of AMD/ARD within a mining context.
- Oxygen Consumption Techniques to Quantify Acidity Generation Rates (2012)
- Oxygen Consumption Techniques to Quantify Acidity Generation Rates (2012) – (Chinese abstract only)
Presented at the 1st International Acid and Metalliferous Drainage Workshop in China this paper discusses the oxygen consumption (OxCon) testwork techniques along with key benefits.
- The benefits of kinetic testwork using oxygen consumption techniques and implications for the management of sulfidic materials (2011)
This paper discusses the key advantages of oxygen consumption (OxCon) test work and its use in the management of sulfidic materials.
Paper outlines the Brukunga remediation project and its aim to provide an effective long-term solution for remediating the legacy Brukunga Pyrite mine, South Australia.
The paper describes the development of the saturated dump concept, including discussion of geotechnical investigations, hydrogeological studies, water balance and both 2-D and 3-D hydrologic modelling at the Brukunga legacy minesite, South Australia.
- Alkalinity generating cover materials for sustainably lowering acidity loads from waste rock piles – Field demonstration (2009)
Paper describes the performance of two alkalinity producing cover materials being tested at the former Brukunga pyrite mine, South Australia.
This paper reviews a wide range of technologies for combating acidic and metalliferous drainage (AMD), spanning characterization, prevention, mitigation and treatment.
- Rehabilitation of a Highly Sulfidic Tailings Dam in South-eastern Australia (2008)
The paper discusses the rehabilitation strategies used to address short and long-term environmental issues at an abandoned mine site. The key objective was to minimise oxidation of the tailings, and therefore AMD generation, by establishing a water cover and self-sustaining passive treatment system.
- Successfully lowering the risks and costs associated with the legacy of the abandoned Brukunga Pyrite mine, South Australia (2006)
This paper discusses the steps taken to reduce the AMD risks at the Brukunga mine site in southern Australia. Improvements in site water containment and collection, upgrades to treatment facilities and improvements to downstream water quality are discussed.
- Alkalinity producing cover materials for providing sustained improvement in water quality from waste rock piles (2006)
This paper discusses the solubility and dissolution characteristics of specialized calcium-enriched caustic magnesia (MgO) materials which makes them ideal for use as an alkaline amendment in new and existing waste rock covers.
This paper investigates the stability of a range of AMD treatment sludges. The stability of the sludges and their susceptibility to leaching under certain conditions is related to their inherent neutralizing potential.
- A summary of passive and active treatment technologies for Acid and Metalliferous Drainage (AMD) (2005)
This paper explains the concept of acidity and acidity load before summarizing the range of available treatment technologies. Also discussed at some depth is the difference between passive and active systems along with examples of each outlining their benefits and limitations.
- Coming to Terms with Acid Drainage
Using case studies from the Asia-Pacific, this paper reviews and evaluates a range of established techniques, recent advances and new concepts developed for the control and management of acid drainage from mine sites. It identifies the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches and highlights where each can be most cost effectively and successfully used. It also reviews some areas of continuing research into cost-effective techniques for minimising or avoiding acid drainage formation, techniques that offer hope for expanding the future options of environmental managers.
This paper focuses on the various passive and active treatment alternatives, examining their strengths, weaknesses and suitability for particular applications. The paper provides a starting point for selecting an appropriate technology to meet specific treatment requirements and goals.
- The Passive Prevention of ARD in Underground Mines by Displacement of Air with a Reducing Gas Mixture: GaRDS (2001)
This paper discusses an innovative approach to stabilizing sulfide minerals, thereby reducing pollutant loads, from underground mines. The approach uses a low cost technology to manipulate the atmosphere in mine voids displacing oxygen with a reducing gas mixture, thereby reducing sulfide oxidation and acid generation rates.